Concentrated Milk Products
Concentrated milks are obtained by partial water removal to the extent they contain less than 40% milk solids. The result is a concentrated liquid. The two most common types are evaporated milk and sweetened condensed milk. Reduced-fat and nonfat versions are also available. Concentrated products are sterilized or their osmotic pressure is increased so that no microorganisms survive.
Because of its concentrated form, evaporated milk is a multipurpose, convenient dairy product ready for every milk use. Pouring directly from the can, evaporated milk can be used in countless applications: creaming coffee or tea, poured on cereals and fruits, providing consistency in meat patties and loaves, coatings for baked or fried meats, or in place of milk in the manufacture of candies, frostings, and pies.
Condensed milk is obtained by the partial removal of water from whole or skim milk that has been pasteurized and to which nothing has been added. The product is canned or packaged in other containers without sterilization in a procedure known as osmoanabiosis—the prevention of microbial growth by increasing osmotic pressure on the medium. The minimum sugar content is often not precisely specified, but should be sufficient to avoid spoilage. Frequently, this product is fortified with the addition of vitamins—mainly A, D3, and B1.
Evaporated milk is made by the removal or evaporation of water from milk without the addition of any preserving material. The canned product is heat sterilized to extend shelf life. Fortification with vitamins of either or both A or D3 is common.
Evaporated Skim Milk
Evaporated skim milk is obtained by a simple concentration of skim milk by vacuum evaporation or reverse osmosis. This process produces a product with a minimum of 20% milk solids, while evaporated low-fat milk ranges from 2.0-4.0% milkfat and a milk solids content of 20-24%.
Evaporated Filled Milk
Evaporated filled milk is a prepared blend of skim milk, vegetable oil, stabilizers and vitamins. This is a product only for export; it can be made in the U.S., but not sold in the U.S.