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Caseins & Carbohydrates Overview

Caseins | Overview

Caseins are highly functional and nutritious proteins, with applications that span a broad range of food, beverage, and industrial applications owing to their special properties.  All caseins begin with a precipitation or coagulation step, using acid or enzymes to recover the casein proteins from milk as a solid, which is subsequently washed and dried to yield a stable powder.  These casein powders themselves have very limited water solubility in their acid or rennet forms, but when converted to a caseinate salt, they become highly water soluble and therefore suitable for a broader range of end uses.  The most commercially common caseinate forms are calcium caseinate, potassium caseinate, sodium caseinate, and ammonium caseinate, depending on the neutralizing agent that is chosen for conversion.

Carbohydrates | Overview

The principle carbohydrate in milk is lactose, and a number of dairy ingredients in our carbohydrates category contain a high concentration of lactose, the level of which depends on their specific origin and their degree of further refining.  Dairy permeates, for example, typically contain between 78-88% lactose (for milk permeate) or 76-85% (for whey permeate), while the lactose ingredients begin at 98.0% minimum content and increase to 99.5% or more for the most refined grade.  Lactose is also the starting point for the manufacture of galacto-oligosaccharides (“GOS”), where enzymes are used to break the lactose disaccharide into its constituent glucose and galactose molecules, and then that galactose is further polymerized to yield GOS which has special nutritional qualities both as a source of soluble fiber and as a probiotic.

Additional Resources
Additional resources including the Dried Dairy Ingredients Handbook and more are available for ADPI members. Click the button to log-in to access these resources.

Functional Benefits of Dairy Ingredients

Function Primary Components Benefits
Solubility Protein Provides better performance in all applications
Browning Protein and Lactose Provides color and flavor development
Emulsification Protein-caseins provide stronger emulsification than whey proteins Provides binding and separation of fat globules and texture stability
Heat Stablity Protein-caseins are more heat stable than whey proteins Prevents protein aggregation and settling for properly hydrated ingredients during high heat processing
Gelling & Heat Setting Protein-whey proteins will denature and form gels with heat treatment Provides structure and water holding properties
Water Binding & Viscosity Building Protein-caseins have more water binding ability than whey proteins Improves texture and mouthfeel; Helps to retain moisture and improve shelf life
Whipping & Foaming Protein-whey proteins generally foam more than caseins Provides aerated structure and texture


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