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Dairy (Milk & Whey) Permeate

Dairy Permeate (Milk and Whey) Standard

v 2.0 | Effective 06/09/2023

Product Definition

Also known as: Milk Permeate, Whey Permeate and Dairy Products Solids.

Dairy Permeate is manufactured by the removal of protein and other solids from milk or whey, resulting in a product with a high concentration of lactose. Removal of the dairy constituents is accomplished by physical separation techniques such as filtration and diafiltration.  The acidity of Dairy Permeate may be adjusted by the addition of safe and suitable pH adjusting ingredients.

Dairy Permeate meets the definition of Dairy Product Solids, which is the subject of a GRAS notification to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and it complies with all provisions of the U.S. Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

Standard: Printable PDF
Milk Permeate Whey Permeate
Parameter Units of Measure Typical Values Limits Typical Values Limits
Lactose % 78 - 88 76 minimum 76 - 85 76 minimum
Protein % 3 - 5 2 minimum 2 - 7 7 maximum
Fat % 0 - 1.0 1.5 maximum 0 - 1.0 1.5. maximum
Ash (phosphated) % 8 - 11 14 maximum 8 - 11 14 maximum
Total moisture % 3 - 4.5 5.0 maximum 3 - 4.5 5.0 maximum
Other Characteristics
Physico-chemical Properties
Parameter Units of Measure Limits
Scorched particles mg/25g 15 maximum
pH -- 5.5 - 6.6
Color visual white to cream
Flavor sensory bland, clean; free from offensive flavors
Physical appearance visual free of lumps that do not break up under slight pressure; free of foreign material
Microbiological Analysis
Parameter Units of Measure Limits
Standard plate count CFU/g 30,000 maximum
Yeast & Mold CFU/g 100 maximum
Coliforms (1) CFU/g 10 maximum
Enterobacteriaceae (1) CFU/g 10 maximum
Salmonella CFU/sample (2) not detected

(1) The food industry is trending toward Enterobacteriaceae (“EB”) as the most commonly used category of indicator organisms for gauging general process sanitation.  For compliance with this Standard, either coliforms and/or EB shall be utilized, at the discretion of the manufacturer.

(2) Typical minimum sample size for Salmonella testing is 25 g, but the exact sample size and methodology is left to the discretion of the manufacturer.

Methods of Analysis
Parameter Reference Method
Lactose ISO 22662 / IDF 198
Protein AOAC 991.20 (N x 6.38)
Fat AOAC 989.05
Moisture AOAC 925.45
Ash AOAC 942.05
Microbiological tests FDA BAM
Product Labeling

Recommended identifications:

Milk Permeate (for permeate derived from milk only)

Whey Permeate

Dairy Product Solids (suitable in all cases)

Alternative identifications:

(whey derivation only)

Modified Whey

Deproteinized Whey

Dried Whey Products

Dried Whey Solubles

Dairy Permeate may be used as a direct replacement for other dairy solids in many food applications, including:  bakery products and pizza crust dough; confectionary products; as a replacement for sucrose or corn syrups; to reduce the level of salt in formulated products; and for fermentation.  Milk permeate may also be used for standardizing skim milk or whole milk powders.

Dairy Permeate can be a source of lactose and minerals required for the development of nutritional products for the feed sector – especially for baby animals.

Product should be stored, shipped, and utilized according to the manufacturer’s established recommendations.  As guidance, product should be stored and shipped in a cool, dry environment with temperature below 80°F and relative humidity below 65%.  Stocks should be rotated and utilized in accordance with the manufacturer’s established date of expiration or retest.

Multiwall kraft bags with polyolefin inner liner, or other suitable closed containers (e.g., totes) are typical.

Milk Permeate is a by-product of the Milk Protein Concentrate (MPC) or the Milk Protein Isolate (MPI) production process, formed after ultrafiltration of milk to extract protein and fat. The product is then dried using advanced spray drying techniques. Milk permeate powder is characterized by a clean, slightly salty taste and uniform particle size. It consists of lactose, water, vitamins and minerals.

Milk Permeate Powder is typically 80% lactose (minimum 75%), 3% protein, 8.5% ash plus a trace amount of fat. The total moisture level averages 5% with free moisture at 1.5% or below.

Additional Resources

Additional resources including the Dried Dairy Ingredients Handbook and more are available for ADPI members. Click the button to log-in to access these resources.

In no event shall ADPI be liable for any direct, indirect, incidental, special, exemplary, or consequential damages (including, but not limited to: the need to procure substitute goods or services; loss of use, data, or profits; or business interruption) however caused and on any theory of liability, whether in contract, strict liability, or tort (including negligence or otherwise) arising in any way out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon any standard, even if advised of the possibility of such damage and regardless of whether such damage was foreseeable.



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