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Instant Dry Whole Milk

Instant Dry Whole Milk Standard

v 3.0 | Effective 07/07/2023

Product Definition

Instant Dry Whole Milk (iDWM) is Dry Whole Milk that has been produced in such a way as to substantially improve its dispersion and reconstitution properties over that produced by the conventional processes.  Instant Dry Whole Milk contains not less than 26% but not more than 40% milkfat (by weight) on an “as is” basis and not more than 4.5% moisture (by weight) on a milk solids-non-fat (SNF) basis.  Optionally, Instant Dry Whole Milk may be fortified with either vitamins A or D, or both.

Instant Dry Whole Milk complies with all provisions of the U.S. Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

See the separate ADPI standard for Dry Whole Milk (DWM) for conventional, non-instantized product.

Standard: Printable PDF
Composition of Extra Grade Instant Dry Whole Milk

Extra Grade is so designated to indicate the highest quality of Instant Dry Whole Milk.  In addition to meeting the established USDA General Grading Requirements, it shall meet the following specifications:

Parameter Units of Measure Limits
Fat % (w/w) 26.0 - 40.0
Total Moisture % (w/w, SNF basis) 4.5 maximum
Scorched particles (1) mg/25g 15.0 maximum
Titratable acidity (1) % 0.15 maximum
Solubility index (1) mL 1.0 maximum

(1) Scorched particles, titratable acidity, and solubility index requirements ordinarily appear in ADPI Standards in the section defining Other Characteristics, but they are included here because they are integral to the established USDA requirements for Extra Grade.

Other Characteristics of Extra Grade Instant Dry Whole Milk
Physico-chemical Properties
Parameter Units of Measure Limits
Dispersibility % 85 minimum
Color and appearance visual white or light cream; free from lumps that do not break up under slight pressure; practically free from visible dark particles; free from graininess when reliquefied
Flavor sensory sweet, pleasing and desirable; may possess a slight feed flavor and a definite cooked flavor; free from undesirable flavors
Microbiological Analysis
Parameter Units of Measure Limits
Standard plate count CFU/g 10,000 maximum
Coliforms CFU/g 10 maximum
Optional Test for Instant Dry Whole Milk

Other tests which may be made on any Dry Whole Milk (not mandatory for grade designation, but, if determined, must comply with the limits as indicated) are:

Parameter Units of Measure Limits
Direct microscopic clump (DMC) count count/g 100 million maximum
Oxygen content (for gas packed product) % 3 maximum
Protein % for information
Copper (Cu) (2) ppm 1.5 maximum
Iron (Fe) (2) ppm 1.0 maximum

(2) Not relevant when oxygen content meets the defined requirement.

When tested, oxygen content will be shown on the grading certificates as follows:

  • Not more than 2% oxygen; or
  • Not more than 3% oxygen; or
  • Oxygen content ___%

When tested, protein content will be shown on the grading certificates as follows:

  • Protein content ___%

When it is determined that Instant Dry Whole Milk:

  1. fails to meet the requirements of Extra Grade (3);
  2. fails to meet the requirements of the Optional Test, when such test has been made (3); or
  3. has been produced in a plant that is rated ineligible for USDA grading service or is not USDA approved;

then it shall not be assigned a grade.

(3) When tested in accordance with the standardized methods of analysis contained herein

Additional ADPI Specifications

ADPI imposes the following additional requirements on Instant Dry Whole Milk:

Microbiological Analysis
Parameter Units of Measure Limits
Yeast and mold CFU/g 100 maximum
Enterobacteriaceae (4) CFU/g 10 maximum
Salmonella genus CFU/sample (5) not detected
Staphylococcus (coagulase positive) CFU/g not detected (6)
Listeria genus CFU/g not detected

(4) The food industry is trending toward Enterobacteriaceae (“EB”) as the most commonly used category of indicator organisms for gauging general process sanitation.  For compliance with this Standard, coliforms shall be utilized for compliance with the USDA Grade requirements, while EB may be used at the discretion of the manufacturer.

(5) Typical minimum sample size for Salmonella testing is 25 g, but the exact sample size and methodology is left to the discretion of the manufacturer.

(6) Where the effective limit of quantitation for the test is 10 CFU/g (such as when a dilution factor of 10 is applied) then the test result must be not detected in order to comply with this Standard.  Where the testing method is capable of quantifying microbial counts below 10 CFU/g, then a compliant result must be a value less than 10 CFU/g.

Permissible Additives

Instant Dry Whole Milk may be fortified with vitamin A and/or vitamin D, provided that each quart of the resulting fluid milk, reconstituted in accordance with the label directions, conforms to the following fortified content requirements, as appropriate:

Parameter Units of Measure Content
Vitamin A IU 2000
Vitamin D IU 400

Methods of Analysis

Parameter Reference Method
Fat AOAC 989.05
Total Moisture AOAC 925.45
Scorched particles ADPI
Titratable acidity AOAC 947.05
Solubility index SMEDP
Dispersibility Modified Moats - Dabbah method
Standard plate count SMEDP
Coliforms SMEDP
Direct microscopic clump (DMC) count SMEDP
Oxygen AOAC
Protein AOAC
Copper (Cu) AOAC
Iron (Fe) AOAC
Yeast and mold FDA BAM
Enterobacteriaceae FDA BAM
Salmonella AOAC
Staphylococcus AOAC
Listeria FDA BAM

Product Labeling

Recommended identifications:

Instant Dry Whole Milk ___% milkfat: where the actual milkfat content is declared

Instant Dry Whole Milk ___% milkfat, fortified with vitamin(s) _____: where the vitamins are stated


Instant Dry Whole Milk is typically used in confectionery, bakery products, packaged dry mixes, dairy products, soups, sauces, frozen foods, beverages, and others.

Product should be stored, shipped, and utilized according to the manufacturer’s established recommendations.  As guidance, product should be stored and shipped in a cool, dry environment with temperature below 80°F and relative humidity below 65%.  Stocks should be rotated and utilized in accordance with the manufacturer’s established date of expiration or retest.

Multiwall kraft bags with polyolefin inner liner, or other suitable closed containers (e.g., totes) are typical.

Additional Resources

Additional resources including the Dried Dairy Ingredients Handbook and more are available for ADPI members. Click the button to log-in to access these resources.

In no event shall ADPI be liable for any direct, indirect, incidental, special, exemplary, or consequential damages (including, but not limited to: the need to procure substitute goods or services; loss of use, data, or profits; or business interruption) however caused and on any theory of liability, whether in contract, strict liability, or tort (including negligence or otherwise) arising in any way out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon any standard, even if advised of the possibility of such damage and regardless of whether such damage was foreseeable.



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