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Instant Nonfat Dry Milk

Instant Nonfat Dry Milk Standard

v 3.0 | Effective 07/06/2023

Product Definition

Instant Nonfat Dry Milk (NDM) is Nonfat Dry Milk that has been produced in such a way as to substantially improve its dispersion and reconstitution properties over that produced by the conventional processes.  Instant Nonfat Dry Milk contains not more than 1.25% fat and not more than 4.5% total moisture.

Instant Nonfat Dry Milk complies with all provisions of the U.S. Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

See the separate ADPI standard for Nonfat Dry Milk (NDM) for the conventional, non-instantized product.

Standard: Printable PDF
Composition of Extra Grade Instant Nonfat Dry Milk

Extra Grade is so designated to indicate the highest quality of Instant Nonfat Dry Milk.  In addition to meeting the established USDA General Grading Requirements, it shall meet the following specifications:

Parameter Units of Measure Limits
Fat % 1.25 maximum
Total Moisture % 4.5 maximum
Scorched particles (1) mg/25g 15.0 maximum
Titratable acidity (1) % 0.15 maximum
Solubility index (1) mL 1.0 maximum

(1) Scorched particles, titratable acidity, and solubility index requirements ordinarily appear in ADPI Standards in the section defining Other Characteristics, but they are included here because they are integral to the established USDA requirements for Extra Grade.

Other Characteristics of Extra Grade Instant Nonfat Dry Milk
Physico-chemical Properties
Parameter Units of Measure Limits
Dispersibility visual 85 minimum
Color and appearance visual white to cream; reasonably free flowing and free from lumps that do not break up under slight pressure
Flavor and odor sensory sweet, pleasing and desirable; may possess chalky, cooked, feed and flat flavors to a slight degree
Microbiological Analysis
Parameter Units of Measure Limits
Standard plate count CFU/g 10,000 maximum
Coliforms CFU/g 10 maximum
Optional Test for Instant Nonfat Dry Milk

Another test which may be made on Instant Nonfat Dry Milk (not mandatory for grade designation, but, if determined, must comply with the limits as indicated) is:

Parameter Units of Measure Limits
Direct microscopic clump (DMC) count count/g 40 million maximum

When it is determined that Instant Nonfat Dry Milk:

  1. fails to meet the requirements of Extra Grade5;
  2. fails to meet the requirements of the Optional Test, when such test has been made5; or
  3. has been produced in a plant that is rated ineligible for USDA grading service or is not USDA approved;

then it shall not be assigned a grade.

(5) When tested in accordance with the standardized methods of analysis contained herein

Additional ADPI Specifications

ADPI imposes the following additional requirements on Instant Nonfat Dry Milk:

Microbiological Analysis
Parameter Units of Measure Limits
Yeast and mold CFU/g 100 maximum
Enterobacteriaceae (6) CFU/g 10 maximum
Salmonella genus CFU/sample (7) not detected
Staphylococcus (coagulase positive) CFU/g not detected (8)
Listeria genus CFU/g not detected

(6) The food industry is trending toward Enterobacteriaceae (“EB”) as the most commonly used category of indicator organisms for gauging general process sanitation.  For compliance with this Standard, coliforms shall be utilized for compliance with the USDA Grade requirements, while EB may be used at the discretion of the manufacturer.

(7) Typical minimum sample size for Salmonella testing is 25 g, but the exact sample size and methodology is left to the discretion of the manufacturer.

(8) Where the effective limit of quantitation for the test is 10 CFU/g (such as when a dilution factor of 10 is applied) then the test result must be not detected in order to comply with this Standard.  Where the testing method is capable of quantifying microbial counts below 10 CFU/g, then a compliant result must be a value less than 10 CFU/g.

Permissible Additives

Instant Nonfat Dry Milk may not contain, or be derived from:

  • Dry buttermilk;
  • Dry whey;
  • Products other than skim milk, except that lactose may be added as a processing aid during instantizing.

If lactose is used, the amount of lactose shall be the minimum required to produce the desired effect, but in no case shall the amount exceed 2.0 percent of the weight of the Nonfat Dry Milk.

Added preservatives, neutralizing agents, and other chemicals are not permitted in Instant Nonfat Dry Milk.

Instant Nonfat Dry Milk may be fortified with vitamin A and/or vitamin D, provided that each quart of the resulting fluid milk, reconstituted in accordance with the label directions, conforms to the following fortified content requirements, as appropriate:

Parameter Units of Measure Content
Vitamin A IU 2000
Vitamin D IU 400

Methods of Analysis

Parameter Reference Method
Fat AOAC 989.05
Total Moisture AOAC 925.45
Scorched particles ADPI
Titratable acidity AOAC 947.05
Solubility index SMEDP
Dispersibility Modified Moats - Dabbah method
Standard plate count SMEDP
Coliforms SMEDP
Direct microscopic clump (DMC) count SMEDP
Yeast and mold FDA BAM
Enterobacteriaceae FDA BAM
Salmonella AOAC
Staphylococcus AOAC
Listeria FDA BAM

Product Labeling

Recommended identification:

Instant Nonfat Dry Milk


Instant Nonfat Dry Milk fortified with vitamin(s) _________: where the vitamins are stated


Typical Applications

Instant Nonfat Dry Milk is typically used for beverage purposes and as such, is usually fortified.  Typical reconstitution schemes, by desired quantity of reconstituted liquid instant milk, are as follows:

Instant Nonfat Dry Milk quantity cold water liquid instant milk
1/3 cup 1 cup about 1 cup
1 1/3 cup 3 3/4 cup about 1 quart

Instant Nonfat Dry Milk without fortification may be procured as an ingredient in other food products, such as beverages, breads, soups, salad dressings, entrees, desserts, diet drinks, special dietary beverages, infant formulas, cosmetics, and others.

Product should be stored, shipped, and utilized according to the manufacturer’s established recommendations.  As guidance, product should be stored and shipped in a cool, dry environment with temperature below 80°F and relative humidity below 65%.  Stocks should be rotated and utilized in accordance with the manufacturer’s established date of expiration or retest.

Multiwall kraft bags with polyolefin inner liner, or other suitable closed containers (e.g., totes) are typical.

Additional Resources

Additional resources including the Dried Dairy Ingredients Handbook and more are available for ADPI members. Click the button to log-in to access these resources.

In no event shall ADPI be liable for any direct, indirect, incidental, special, exemplary, or consequential damages (including, but not limited to: the need to procure substitute goods or services; loss of use, data, or profits; or business interruption) however caused and on any theory of liability, whether in contract, strict liability, or tort (including negligence or otherwise) arising in any way out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon any standard, even if advised of the possibility of such damage and regardless of whether such damage was foreseeable.



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